Do MY FOOD CHOICES affect anyone else?

The reason I named my facebook page Our Food Karma is because I wanted to highlight the idea that we are all in it together and our own food choices have a massive influence on the food choices of others and I’ll explain why…!

Family influences:

If you have one parent who is obese you have a 50% chance of becoming obese as an adult and if both your parents are obese then your obesity risk goes up to 80%! I argue that the risk is more down to nurture rather than nature! Our diets in adulthood are largely influenced on what food we were given as a child. Although easily mistaken, love is not providing sugary foods to settle children. If you are overweight as a child you are likely going to be overweight as an adult, unless you change your diet dramatically later on in life.

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Parents/caregivers who eat unhealthily will undoubtedly impart at least some of these unhealthy eating behaviours to their children. Also your diet prior to and during pregnancy along with your weight can have long lasting effects on your child’s health even in adulthood!! Women who enter into pregnancy overweight increase their own risk of developing gestational diabetes and increase the likelihood of their child developing type 2 diabetes later in life!

So in order to ensure your kids are healthy and less likely to become overweight, develop type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease as adults it is worth reassessing mealtimes and making nutrition a priority.

Friends:

Whether we realise it or not our food choices affect the food choices of our friends. For example, when you are meeting up with friends and someone suggests a dessert, do you say

  1. “yes, that’s a great idea, I was eyeing up the chocolate éclair” OR
  2. “I’m good, the dinner was enough for me!”

When  you visit friends do you bring cakes and biscuits or do you bring a healthy dip? When you go to the cinema do you convince your friend to get popcorn and chocolate too so you can feel better about treating yourself? Do you bring sweets for your friend’s children or instead buy them a colouring book, bracelet, or DVD? What I’m discussing here is what you do most of time; sometimes you might bring ice-cream to cheer yourself or a friend up, or maybe you have that dessert just because you feel like it, or maybe you do bring sweets over for a friend’s child but as long as your habit (what you do around 80% of the time) has a positive impact overall then you will be doing okay! Our friends are often the most influential people in our life! It pays to be around healthy friends..!!

Housemates:

Every house I’ve lived in (and I’ve lived in a lot), I’ve learnt or picked up some cooking tips from a housemate. You notice what your housemates buy in their grocery shopping and you see and smell the end results. This affects you whether you know it or not! However, when your housemate prefers to order a pizza then this can make you a bit more relaxed and perhaps not as stringent with your home cooking (…but at least there’s no one taking over the cooker!). If we look at things the other way round your housemate may start to become curious about your food and perhaps may start to buy some of those “strange” vegetables you get each week!

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Grocery shopping:

The food industry and supermarkets are to blame for all the cheap and easily available unhealthy food. There is enticement and temptation everywhere, as their sole objective is to make money! However, it is ultimately us who swipes our bank cards and pays for our own food shopping. If we did not continue to purchase all those sugary drinks, biscuits, cakes, pastries, and chocolate then there would no longer be a demand for them and suppliers would stock more healthy food (but only if there is a demand!).

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This is a photo taken by my friend Elize when she was in Amsterdam. Sometimes a photo can describe a thousand words!! Very ironic!

Eating out:

Similar to grocery shopping above, if we make the individual choice to stop buying takeaways and instead eat at healthy restaurants then the demand for these fast food chains will go down! Fast food restaurants located near schools or near residential areas is associated with an increase in obesity! We can also do our bit at restaurants. Portion sizes in restaurants are often a lot bigger than what you would normally eat at home. There is often the dilemma of not wanting to waste food and to get value for your money. Although you may feel awkward asking the following questions, my advice is to not care as most restaurants are a business and are there for profit but if people keep asking then they will gradually change their menus/options! The following questions can be helpful in making sure you follow a healthy diet while eating out:

  • Are there half portions available?
  • Can I have the dressing on the side?
  • What exactly is in the salad? I find salads can be hit and miss. You can get amazing, tasty and filling salads and on the other hand you can get miserable, tasteless and unfilling salads, and then you wish you ordered those chips that someone else has (and you may even treat yourself to a dessert to feel better after this mishap!).
  • Can I have a larger portion of vegetables instead of the baguette/bread/chips? Or a side salad with the soup instead of white bread (which is commonly provided)?
  • Ask to have what you’re not eating put into a takeaway container. This prevents you from continuing to graze and it means you have another meal/snack for later (sustainability!).

Conclusion

We live in a world that is becoming more and more aware of the link between nutrition and health but unfortunately our awareness is not having enough action. Although it may seem like we can only play a small part; if everyone made one small change to their diet every week we would have a healthy and happy population in no time!

If you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

A diet that can treat Autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Depression and Schizophrenia?

I am currently researching diet strategies used in the management of different gut issues. This has come about because I have been asked to present at the NZ Society of Naturopaths and Naturopaths of NZ combined annual conference in Auckland in September. My presentation title is “Demystifying diets for functional gut problems” so here I am reviewing diets relating to gut problems!

Recently I wrote a blog on low FODMAPs diet for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Low FODMAP foods for IBS. In this blog I am going to focus on the Gut and Psychology Syndromes (GAPS) diet which claims to provide a natural treatment for Autism, ADHD, Dyslexia, Depression, and Schizophrenia.

What is GAPS?

Gut and Psychology Syndromes (GAPS) is a condition that is based on the connection between the function of the digestive system and the brain. It was coined by Dr Natasha Campbell-McBride in 2004 after her own child was diagnosed with learning difficulties. She believes “all diseases begin in the gut” and that the state of the digestive system links all the above mentioned conditions. She also believes that conditions such as asthma, eczema, allergies, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder can be vastly improved by following the GAPS diet.1

Healthy gut bacteria provide a physical barrier along the length of our intestines. These bacteria protect us from dangerous bacteria (pathogenic bacteria), viruses and fungi. They neutralise toxins, modify the immune system, ferment carbohydrates, produce vitamin K and B vitamins and even provide energy to the cells that line the intestines.1

If beneficial bacteria are weakened then the gut wall is considered open to invasion by various bacteria, parasites and yeast (Candida albicans). This can lead to chronic gut inflammation and malnourished intestinal cells. Intestinal cells are no longer able to function effectively and this results in impaired digestion and absorption “leaky gut”.1

In her book “Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia” Dr Campbell-McBride claims that once the intestinal lining is damaged, wheat and milk proteins are unable to be broken down by enzymes lining the gut wall and instead are absorbed intact. She explains that these proteins; gluteomorphines (wheat proteins) and casomorphines (milk proteins) can interfere with brain and immune system function.1

She also claims that abnormal gut flora can produce neurotoxins and cause the body to produce antibodies against its own cells in the brain and spinal cord.1 She explains that Candida albicans use glucose to form ethanol and acetaldehyde and that Candida overgrowth during pregnancy can affect child development (as the foetus accumulates toxins), and the infant then produces alcohol in their own gut. Dr Campbell-McBride links aldehyde production in the gut with altered myelin structure, which manifests as multiple sclerosis. She thinks this aldehyde production may be a cause of the neurologic picture of autistic and dyspraxic children. Aldehyde production binds to vitamin B6, preventing its use as a co-factor for neurotransmitters and fatty acid metabolism. She claims that mothers of GAPS children always have gut dysbiosis (imbalance).1

Diet and GAPS

Dr Campbell-McBride claims that sugar and processed carbohydrates increase Candida, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Clostridia and Bacteroids, and predisposes an individual to worms and parasites. She also claims that a high amount of grain intake predisposes individuals to IBS and bowel cancer. She even states that there were no cases of schizophrenia or coeliac disease documented in Ireland until post potato famine when grains became an integral part of the Irish diet! She explains in her book that diet plus other factors such as antibiotic use, surgery, chemotherapy, stress, pollution and oral contraceptive pills have a collective negative effective on beneficial bacteria.1

What does the GAPS diet entail?

The GAPS diet eliminates all complex carbohydrates and only allows smaller sized carbohydrates called monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) in the diet as these are relatively easy to absorb.  This means avoidance of all grains (wheat, millet, spelt, quinoa, and cous-cous etc), starchy vegetables and beans (potatoes, yams, parsnip, soybeans, mungbeans, bean sprouts, chick peas, and fava beans). All fresh fruit, honey and non-starchy vegetables (Table 1) are allowed. Homemade fermented yoghurt is allowed as the fermentation process breaks the carbohydrates into small sugars and the proteins into amino acids that can then be easily absorbed.1

 Table 1: Non starchy fresh veg and beans/ lentils allowed in the GAPS diettable 1 gaps diet

The GAPS diet involves the avoidance of proteins in wheat and dairy but allows easy to digest unprocessed proteins such as eggs, fish, and meat. There is an emphasis on liver, meat, bone and fish stock. She recommends avoidance of lean meats because she believes that we can only use meat fibers when they come with fat, collagen and other substances. She recommends eating meat that has a good covering of fat and to eat the skin of poultry and fish.1

Shelled/freshly shelled nuts and seeds are allowed but they should not be roasted, salted, coated or processed in any way. Seeds can be soaked in salty water for 12 hours to improve their digestibility. Fats are tolerated as they are not dependent on brush border enzymes (enzymes on the gut wall that help digest food). She recommends ghee made from organic butter, cold pressed oils and no processed oils.1

The GAPS diet starts off with an introduction diet which can last from a few weeks to a year, depending on the individual. This stage allows for gut healing and recovering. There are six stages and Table 2 includes some aspects of each stage.

 Table 2: Six stages of the Introduction dietTable 2 gaps diet

After the introduction diet is completed the full GAPS diet then should be followed for 2 years. The full gaps diet includes 85% meat, eggs, fish eggs, fermented dairy and vegetables. There needs to be 6 months normal digestion before including non-GAPS foods.

Is there evidence to support this diet?

There are no studies or published papers on the GAPS diet. Dr Campbell-McBride makes a lot of sweeping statements (she has never met a healthy vegetarian!) and even advises against vaccination in infants born to mothers with fibromyalgia, digestive problems, asthma, eczema, severe allergies, and autoimmune disorders because she claims that viruses from vaccines may survive and persist in GAPS individuals.1  

However it is recognised that 70% of our immune system is localised in the intestines (gut associated lymphoid tissue) and that gut microbiota can alter brain function.2  We know that poor diets can negatively alter bacteria in the gut, which can then affect our brain and cognitive function. The exact mechanism is still unknown but it may be via regulating immunity or hormonal and neural messages.2

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Many gastrointestinal diseases are associated with neurological affects e.g. migraines/headaches, brain fog, fatique and fainting. Untreated coeliac disease is associated with autistic and psychotic behaviours and neurological conditions. There is also an association with IBS and depression and anxiety.3

The GAPS diet is a traditional diet in many ways with the use of bone broths as a major part of the diet. When I was growing up there was always meat and vegetables in a saucepan together left on the stove which cooked for hours at low heat. This low heat cooking helped liberate nutrients from the bones. This is something I no longer practice but I have started keeping the bones from my roast chicken and lamb dinners to make soups and stews!

I think personally, because I truly believe nutrition can have profound effects on health that I would give this diet a try if I had a GAPS condition. However, I think the diet itself may be challenging, particularly because you need to be able to ferment all your own dairy products and some vegetables. I fermented cabbage before (saukerkraut) but I have not fermented my own dairy products; although I hear it is relatively simple and many people make their own kefir (fermented yoghurt). Fermenting food was not a major tradition in Ireland; apart from breads but bacteria/yeast are killed by the heat. Mead, the oldest alcoholic drink was made from fermented honey, water, herbs and spices! You would also need to get used of making your own breads with nut flours as otherwise it becomes quite expensive buying these breads. It may be extremely challenging for a parent to introduce these foods to a child with learning disabilities and it would require a lot of patience and perseverance. Likewise someone with a mental health condition may not feel motivated to make these changes and they would require a lot of support, and even with support unless they understand the value and are on board with the diet then compliance may be low.

Conclusion

Dr Campbell-McBride often uses indirect evidence as ways to give plausible explanations to her yet to be proven theories. I say yet because a lot of what she is saying may be true and in the future her diet may be recognised as a dietary management option for those suffering from learning disabilities and psychological disturbances. I also wonder if there could be some benefit of including some aspects of the GAPS diet (so it not as extreme) over the long-term e.g. reducing fermentable carbohydrates, including more bone broths and adding small amounts of fermented vegetable into the diet?

I hope you found this useful, if you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

References

  1. Campbell-McBride, N. Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia. 2015, (2nd edition) United Kingdom: Medinform Publishing.
  2. Holzer, P., Farz, A. Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-gut-brain-axis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 817:195-219
  3. De Magistris L, Siniscalco D, Bully C, Loguercio C. Gut-brain axis. A new revolution to understand the pathogenesis of autism and other severe neurological diseases. In Human Nutrition from the gastronenterologists perspective, 2016, pp49-65. E. Grossi, F. Pace (eds) Springer International Publishing Switzerland. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-30361-1