Healthy Sunday Brunch

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I love making healthier versions of typical treat food. At the moment, I am having a smoothie most mornings for breakfast but come the weekend I love a change and coconut flour pancakes with bacon and a berry compote are on my go to list!

Recipe:

From start to finish it should take less than 30 minutes to make this meal for two.

I first start off preparing the coconut flour mix (see part 1 below). Coconut flour can be tricky to cook with and my advice is less is more! When I put the first part of the mixture onto the pan then I start on the berry compote (see part 2 below) and I also put the rashers/bacon under the grill and roast my pumpkin seeds (see part 3 below).

Part 1: Coconut flour pancakes (serves 2 people)

Ingredients

  • 1/3 cup coconut flour
  • 1/6 tsp baking flour
  • Pinch of salt
  • 1/4 cup coconut milk or any alternative milk of your choice
  • 2 tbsp of coconut oil
  • 3 eggs
  • Butter for cooking

Instructions

  • Thoroughly mix the eggs and coconut oil together.
  • Add the milk
  • Mix (not too much) in the coconut flour, baking flour, and salt.
  • Melt a about 1 tsp-tbsp of butter in your pan and then slowly add the batter. I usually just spread a thin layer of the mixture throughout the pan.
  • Keep the heat quiet low and cook for about 4 minutes and then flip with a spatula.
  • Once cooked you can place the pancake on a plate and just before serving you can warm these in the oven.

Part 2: Berry Compote

The berry compote is very quick, easy, healthy and tasty! It can be used as a topping to yoghurts, oats and granola!

Ingredients

  • 2 cups of frozen mixed berries or any berries you prefer!
  • 2 tbsp of ground linseeds, sunflowers and almonds (LSA) mix or if you prefer to make it more like a jam then you could use 2 tbsp of chia or linseeds.
  • 100-150mls of water

Instructions

  • Place the 2 cups of frozen mixed berries into a heated saucepan.
  • Once they start to melt/dissolve start to mash them with a fork.
  • Add water and LSA mix
  • Once all the berries are mixed well with the LSA you can allow to cool. The LSA will draw the water in and it will start to gel up within 10 minutes

Part 3: Rashers and Pumpkin seeds

Ingredients

  • 6 Streaky Bacon (serves 2). I recommend going to a good butcher or at least reading the ingredient label on the back of the package when buying your rashers. There is a broad range in pork quality available. Some bacon/rashers only contain 65% pork. Go for Bacon that contains at least 95% pork. The less ingredients the better. Some contain a lot of hidden sugars such as maltodextrin and dextrose.
  • 1 pack of pumpkin seeds 300g
  • 1 tbsp of coconut oil
  • Pinch of salt

Instructions

  • Once you have your pancakes on I recommend you put your rashers under the grill.
  • After 5 minutes under the grill switch to the oven if that’s possible.
  • Mix your pumpkin seeds with the coconut oil and salt. Sprinkle onto a oven tray and place in the bottom of the oven at low heat (~120 °C) while the rashers are cooking above .

 To serve:

  • I recommend placing the pancakes in the oven for 3 minutes before serving. Plate the pancakes and top with the berry compote (about 3 tbsp for each person).
  • Then place the bacon on top and sprinkle with pumpkin seeds. The rest of the pumpkin seeds can be allowed to cool and store in an airtight container (use as a topping to salads).
  • Although I enjoy this without any added sweetener, you are welcome to use a tsp of honey for a little sweetness!
  • Enjoy and please let me know how it tasted….!!

If you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please like my instagram page: ourfoodkarma

 

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An Antioxidant: What is it?

img_5032Nowadays, the term antioxidant is regularly used in support of the latest face cream or nutritional supplement.

However, people often struggle to understand what an antioxidant actually is.

Below is an explanation of what an antioxidant is and its role in the body.

What is an Antioxidant?

An antioxidant is a substance that neutralises or quenches unstable substances called free radicals (1).

An antioxidant is capable of donating an electron to a free radical and as a result ensures the free radical itself becomes stable (2).

Antioxidants are produced within the body but they are also particularly abundant in fruit and vegetables.

Some of the key antioxidants found in food include vitamin A, C, and E, selenium, copper, zinc and phytochemicals.

As long as there are sufficient antioxidants present then free radicals cause no apparent harm. In fact, free radicals can help protect the body (3).

However, excess free radical production within the body or exposure to free radicals in the environment can overwhelm the body’s antioxidant capacity (3).

Excess free radicals which have not been neutralised may go on to adversely affect lipids, proteins and DNA in an attempt to gain an electron (4, 5).

It is even proposed that free radical damage is the underlying cause of ageing and chronic diseases (4, 6).

Therefore, it makes sense to maximize the amount of antioxidants that are consumed throughout the day.

Each person is different and depending on your lifestyle you may need more or less antioxidants than someone else.

The key is to include a variety of fruit and vegetables in your diet each week.

A simple tip is to include different coloured fruits and vegetables in your shopping basket as you are likely to be getting a greater array of nutrients with antioxidant benefits.

Summary: An antioxidant helps to protect the body from damage caused by free radicals. Fruit and vegetables are high in antioxidants and help to maintain or improve health.

 

 

Why Bliss Balls changed my life!

This may seem like a bit of an over-exaggeration but making my own bliss balls changed my outlook on chocolate!

Over the last 10 years or so I’ve tried to improve my diet and although I was eating a mainly wholefood diet I still struggled with cutting out chocolate bars. I’m not too sure if it was psychological or physiological but I regularly craved shop bought chocolate bars. I also had the idea that chocolate is very unhealthy and I should be able to eliminate it from my diet. No wonder I thought that with the ingredients of one of my favourite chocolate bars containing so many highly processed ingredients and different forms of sugar!!

Table 1: Ingredients in a shop bought chocolate bar

Milk, sugar, vegetable fat (palm, shea), glucose syrup, dextrose, dried skimmed milk, cocoa butter, wheat flour, fat-reduced cocoa, cocoa mass, humectant (glycerol), dried whey (from milk), emulsifiers (E442, E471), flavourings, dried cellulose, salt, barley malt syrup, raising agent (sodium bicarbonate), tartaric acid, magnesium stearate.

I began to eat dark chocolate but usually the dark chocolate bars that were readily available only contained 50 to 60% cocoa, and there was still quite a lot of sugar present. About 3 years or so ago my lovely friend Claire shared some bliss balls she made. They were so tasty and chocolatey, and when she told me that she only used a mixture of nuts, seeds, dates and cacao I was very surprised!  How could this taste so good and not contain a lot of rubbish ingredients?! She told me about Deliciously Ella website and from there I started to make my own bliss balls. There is a simple bliss ball recipe from her website on the following link https://deliciouslyella.com/classic-almond-and-cacao-energy-balls/

From then I haven’t looked back. Every week I make a batch of bliss balls and I have one or two as a snack at around 3-4 pm to keep me going before the gym or whatever it is I’m doing before I have dinner later. It’s great to know that I’m eating ingredients that are really going to nourish my body. I also find that I’m satisfied after one or two and less likely to over do it as you easily can with regularly chocolate!

Now I just mix up whatever I have and see how it goes. Yesterday I mixed almonds, milled linseeds, sesame seeds, cacao, and as I didn’t have any dates I tried mashing up some fresh mango to make all the ingredients stick together and to give some sweetness. These all worked really well together!

If you don’t have a food processor you can buy ground up nuts and seeds. Cacao can be quite expensive so you can use cocoa instead. Cocoa undergoes more processing than cacao but it still contains minerals such as calcium, magnesium and zinc. Also, you can use any dates really as medjool dates can be expensive.

So there it is, I still love chocolate but bliss balls have allowed me to have my guilt free chocolate fix!

If you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

Sports supplements: Are they worth all the hype?!

Sports nutrition continues to boom with interest in sports supplements extending beyond athletes and body builders. Your everyday gym goer wants to be lean and strong; strength has become a greater priority than the figures on the scales. There is a surge in fitness and health bloggers with their photos on Instagram and Facebook creating a desire and motivation to achieve a leaner body. Non-professional sports are becoming more and more competitive and individuals are increasingly more open to taking supplements in hope they will gain an added edge.

Although there is continued research and funding to show a given supplement can improve body composition or performance, very few supplements have been shown to be effective. Those that show effectiveness are often based on research conducted on a small number of male athletes (such as cyclists) and therefore, how can we be convinced that this will work for everyone?

Below are my top 5 supplements that have the most robust evidence and a good safety profile, but of course there is no substitute for disciplined training and a proper diet!

  1. Creatine:

Creatine phosphate is stored in your muscles and provides an excellent store of energy for very high intensity exercises (when oxygen supply to the muscles is insufficient). You will be using your creatine phosphate stores when you do an “all-out sprint” or lift maximum weights. Both of these examples cannot be maintained for very long and this is because the creatine phosphates are spilt to produce energy and they must be recycled. The recycling process requires oxygen so you will need to get your “breath back” in order to make more creatine phosphate.1

We consume creatine via meat and fish products and we can also make it in the liver; both of which amount to about 2g/day.  An average (70kg) athlete stores around 120g of creatine. Supplementation studies have shown that muscle creatine concentration can be increased by up to 20% using creatine supplements.2

This is achieved by creatine loading: 2

  • Consume 20-25 g/day of creatine over 5-6 days followed by 2g/day as maintenance or
  • Consume smaller amounts (around 3g/day) over 1 month.

Improvements in performance have been shown in weight lifters who loaded with creatine. Creatine supplementation can also cause weight gain (1-2 kg increase in total body mass has been documented after 20g/day loading with creatine for 4-28 days).2 Supplementation increases intracellular water in the muscle which may stimulate glycogen storage. However, there are responders and non-responders; it does not work for everybody! Lastly, anyone with kidney disease should avoid creatine supplementation as it may affect creatinine clearance.

Summary: Creatine supplements may allow maintenance of top speed/strength for longer but this does not always equate to improved performance.

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  1. Caffeine

Caffeine is a socially acceptable stimulatory drug. Caffeine can improve performance in endurance exercises such as running and cycling and also in high intensity sports such as rugby and soccer (from 1 to 3%).3 Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and works by reducing an athlete’s perception of effort and/or pain threshold.2 It has been used as an adjunct to weight loss but caffeine alone has not been shown to have an substantial effect on weight loss.  Unless you are already dehydration, caffeine has not been shown to negatively impact hydration status. Caffeine tends to work when 1-3 mg per kg body weight is consumed before or during exercise.4 A typical cup of coffee contains 80-100 mg of caffeine. You can also take caffeine supplements but if you drink coffee then you can just get your caffeine hit with coffee!

Caffeine is considered safe but excess (greater than 500 mg or greater than your own tolerance level) causes side effects such as increased blood pressure at rest and during exercise, increased heart rate, gastrointestinal distress and insomnia. Caffeine addiction has been documented with doses as low as 100 mg/day and sudden withdrawal can result in severe headaches, drowsiness, and inability to concentrate.1

Personally, I find a cup of coffee (although not a supplement!) before a run or the gym great for a boost but I do not take it before a competitive match because coffee heightens any nervousness I already have coming up to a game!

Summary: Caffeine can improve performance as it is a nervous system stimulant but in excess/above personal tolerance it can cause gastrointestinal distress, increased heart rate and insomnia.

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  1. Protein

The benefit of protein supplementation is more down to convenience than anything else! Protein supplements can be helpful for those going from work to training, or when it may not be possible to have a descent meal soon after training or for those with very high protein requirements; but protein supplementation itself is not more or less effective for increasing muscle mass than protein from food.2  Whey protein is a “fast acting” protein that is absorbed easily and therefore, its amino acids such as the branched chain amino acids- leucine, isoleucine and valine are quickly taken up by muscles. Ricotta cheese contains the highest amount of whey of any wholefood because it is made from whey protein. Casein is a “slow acting” protein with slower absorption compared to whey protein but it provides a more sustained rise in amino acids which may help supress muscle breakdown. Milk contains around 20% whey and 80% casein but all dairy products will contain a mixture of whey and casein. Milk is also rich in leucine which can minimise protein breakdown and is the only amino acid that by itself can stimulate protein synthesis! Research on other individual amino acids is mixed.2 For more on protein please read my recent blog what and when to eat to optimise sports performance

Summary: Protein supplements can be beneficial in enhancing muscle growth and recovery but has not been shown to be more superior to protein from food sources.

  1. Beetroot

Beetroot, spinach, rocket, carrots and most root vegetable contain nitrates. Nitrates can be converted in the body to nitric oxide which improves blood flow via vasodilation. Nitrate intake has been associated with enhanced exercise performance.1 A study by Murphy et al. in 2012 showed that whole beetroot consumption improved running time in 11 recreational fit men and women who ran 5km compared to those who consumed cranberry relish (12.3±2.7km/hr versus 11.9±2.6 km/hr).5  Furthermore, during the last 1.8 km of the 5-km run, running velocity was 5% faster (12.7±3.0 vs 12.1±2.6 km/hour; P=0.02) in the beetroot group. Although beetroot is a food and not a supplement it is worth a mention as the results have been very positive. Perhaps you could have a beetroot, spinach and carrot based smoothie pre-training!

Summary: Consumption of beetroot or an equivalent nitrate dose from other vegetables improves running performance in healthy adults.5

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  1. Probiotics

Athletes with prolonged, intense training often experience diarrhoea and upper respiratory tract infections. This is because vigorous exercise increases gastrointestinal permeability causing ‘leaky gut’. In 2011 West et al. showed that supplementation with a probiotic called Lactobacillus fermentum reduced the severity of self-reported symptoms of lower respiratory illness, use of cold and flu medication, and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms at higher training loads in Australian male athletes.6 Although this research was specific to male Australian athletes it may be worth a trial of this strain if you experience re-occurring diarrhoea and/or respiratory tract infections.

Summary: Athletes experiencing diarrhoea may benefit from a trial of probiotic bacteria called Lactobacillus fermentum.

If you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

References:

  1. Dunford, M. & Doyle, J.A. (2015). Nutrition for sport and exercise. (3rd edition) Stamford, CT: Cengage:
  2. Helms et al (2014). Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11:20
  3. Noakes, T.M. (2002). Love of running (4th Ed). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
  4. Burke, L.M. (2008). Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33, 1319-1334.
  5. Murphy, M. et al. 2012 Whole Beetroot Consumption Acutely Improves Running Performance. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 112;4:548-552
  6. West N.P, et al. (2011) Lactobacillus fermentum (PCC®) supplementation and gastrointestinal and respiratory-tract illness symptoms: a randomised control trial in athletes. Nutrition Journal, 10:30

What and when to eat to optimise sports performance

“What should I eat before, during and after exercise?” is a question I am asked a lot. The other question is “What supplements do you think I should be taking?” I’ll cover supplements in an upcoming blog but getting your overall nutrition sorted first is the key priority!

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Sometimes in sports there is a focus on macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats) but little emphasise on vitamins and minerals but these are essential! For example iron is an essential component of haemoglobin which transports oxygen to your body cells, magnesium acts in the enzymatic conversion of intermediate substances during ATP (energy) production, and B vitamins such as thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), and niacin (B3) are essential in generating large amounts of energy in the cell! So without having these vitamins and minerals present in adequate amounts you will find it hard to reach optimum performance and will likely fatique early.

The best way to get all of these vitamins and minerals is through a good diet. Improving your diet a week or two before a competition is beneficial but the greater benefit is seen in those who have integrated a good healthy eating plan during the year!

What is a good healthy eating plan?

A healthy eating plan includes plenty of vegetables (a mixture of dark green leafy vegetable, purple, yellow and orange vegetables); adding a few lettuce leaves and a slice of tomato to a sandwich is just not enough! Ideally you should be having 4-5 portions of vegetables a day (2 cups of salad leaves or 1 cup of carrots/peppers/tomatoes is considered one normal portion size). Two to four portions of fruit per day is sufficient for most people (depending on energy requirements).  Remember vegetables and fruit contribute to your overall carbohydrate intake!

The next thing is to ensure any grains you eat are wholegrain. These provide a range of B vitamins and plenty of fiber to support good bowel movement! My favourites are quinoa (keen wah) which has a good range of amino acids, oats and wholegrain rice. For anyone who follows a fat-adapted diet plan please read my previous blog on fat adaptation: Getting fat adapted

Good sources of protein rich foods should be included in every meal. Great protein sources are beef steak, lamb chops, chicken breast, tuna steaks, milk and eggs. Salmon and other oily fish also contain great sources of omega 3 which helps to dampen down inflammation in the body. Omega 3 is particularly important in regard to immunity and recovery from injury. There are also good non-animal sources of protein such as chick peas (hummus dips), kidney beans, lentils, nuts and seeds. The beauty about nuts and seeds is that they are convenient and contain an excellent range of minerals such as magnesium, calcium, selenium and zinc. Including some brazil nuts, cashews nuts, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds and sesame seeds is a great way of upping your protein intake and getting some healthy polyunsaturated fats into the diet. Protein requirement for the general population is 0.8 grams (g) per kilogram (kg) of body weight but depending on your sport and body composition you may need 1 to 2 g per kg of body weight.1,2 For a 75 kg individual this equates to 60 g (general population) and 75 g up to 150 g of protein for athletes. To give you an idea; a portion of meat will provide about 25-30g of protein and an egg around 8g of protein. From my experience most people easily meet their protein requirements through diet alone. Unless you are lifting heavy weights and there is continued hypertrophy then you are unlikely to require any extra protein. Excess protein which is not used by muscle cells or for other functions will instead be used for energy, ultimately sparing fat stores; which is not good for anyone trying to reduce their body fat percentage!

In regard to fat, don’t be afraid to include some olive oil (for low heat) or coconut oil/macadamia nut oil (for high heat) at your main meals. Fats are also important for the structure of our cell membranes and hormone production but a low fat meal is best close to exercise.

What should I eat and drink before exercise/training/match/game?

This will all depend on whether you are elite, well-trained or a recreational sports person. Some people eat like they are an elite athlete but are not training or competing at a high level, and therefore may not need extra carbohydrate, protein shakes or supplements etc.

Before exercise you should eat to satisfy hunger and ensure glycogen is replenished. If you had a hard training session the evening before and are training again the next day you may need to have some extra carbohydrate on board to ensure your glycogen stores are topped up. Glycogen is the storage form of carbohydrate in your muscle and liver. We have a limited capacity to store glycogen but the more we have stored then the greater ability there is to use it as a quick fuel sources during exercise. Remember any carbohydrate that is not converted to glycogen can then be stored as fat so it’s important to find your sweet spot (eating enough carbohydrates to replenish glycogen but not too much to increase fat storage).

Individuals with greater muscle mass have a greater ability to store glycogen. For a big match or competition you may wish to try carbohydrate loading. This is where you taper training for a few days before a game and eat a large amount of low fiber carbohydrates (to maximise the amount of carbohydrate consume). However, many people do not tolerate large amounts of carbohydrate and the gastrointestinal symptoms may offset the extra glycogen stored!

The focus before exercise is on carbohydrates but including some branched chain amino acids (BCAA), may help improve time to exhaustion, maximise power output and stimulate protein synthesis after exercise.2,3 BCAAs include three amino acids; isoleucine, leucine and valine. Good sources of these are meat, dairy, egg whites, nuts and seeds.

Another important aspect is to leave time for digestion. If you are eating 3 to 4 hours before exercise then you can have a normal balance meal e.g. sweet potato with some green beans, peppers and a tuna steak. Or if you are going straight from work to training (around 1 to 2 hours before exercise) then it is better to eat something that can be easily digested such as some fruit, nuts and yoghurt. The higher the intensity the exercise is then the greater time you need to allow for digestion. Timing is also quiet individual, some people feel better eating at least 3 hours before training and others can tolerate food up to 1 hour before exercise.

There should be plenty of water on board before exercise and ideally only water should be consumed within an hour before exercise. Having a sugary drink may cause a spike in blood sugar followed by a surge in insulin release that rapidly lowers blood sugars (in people who are sensitive to sugar). You do not want to risk having low blood sugar just before you start training or a match! But in the last 10 minutes before exercise it is ok to drink a sports drink for example as there is not enough time for the body to pump insulin into the blood and by the time exercise starts your body has downregulated its insulin release!

2-3% body water loss can reduce performance but be aware that excess can cause low sodium levels (hyponatremia). It is important to sip water throughout the day and not gulp a liter or two just before training!

Table 1: Pre-exercise nutrition

Time before exercise Example
1 hour or less 500 ml water (no food), a sports drink or homemade sports drink 10 minutes before starting exercise
2 hours Smoothie made from yoghurt and low fiber fruit such as banana, peaches, honeydew and watermelon. Fibrous fruits that are best avoided too close to exercise include apples, berries, dates, figs, grapes, pears, mango and pineapple (but this will depend on personal tolerance level)
3 to 4 hours Quinoa with broccoli, cauliflower, cod fillet with a tomato based sauce

 

What should I eat and drink during exercise/training/match/game?

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For exercise up to 90 minutes the priority should be hydration with water. For endurance exercise such as running, water is sufficient but if you are exercising at high intensity and especially in the heat you may wish to drink a sports drink. Sports drinks will contain carbohydrates and electrolytes which help to maintain water balance in and out of the cells. A number of recent studies have shown that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate solution without actually consuming the drink has a positive effect on exercise performance. It may be that the carbohydrate drink stimulates rewards centers in the brain!2 If you decide to make your own sports drink make sure it does not contain fructose as the main sugar as it will not be absorbed very well and main create gut problems. A good idea is to use coconut water with a pinch of salt!

There will be significant glycogen depletion when exercising for greater than 90minutes. Sports drinks or gels with water will help to maintain carbohydrate. Glycogen depletion can cause muscle wasting as protein is then used as a fuel source.

What should I eat and drink after exercise/training/match/game?

Topping up low or empty glycogen stores after prolonged high intensity exercise is essential to guarantee stores for the next session. This can be achieved by consuming a high carbohydrate snack within 2 hours or within 30 minutes if you plan to exercise again within 8 hours. Liquid carbohydrate sources will be absorbed more quickly but this is only a priority if you are training again soon i.e. the next morning. Drinking juice or eating fruit is also sufficient to replace nearly all electrolytes.

In a 1 hour workout you can use up to 30g of protein (again this depends on the type pf exercise, intensity and your own body composition). If you are having a meal with some animal protein or good non-animal protein sources as mentioned earlier then that should meet your protein and BCAA needs. However, if you are not having a meal and are on the go then it is a good idea to have some nuts and yoghurt with you. Homemade or shop bought bought bliss balls can be great,  and a protein shake or a protein bar can also be useful.

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Conclusion

In the long term your nutrition goals should focus on adequate:

  • energy intake to meet the energy demands of training
  • replenishment of muscle and liver glycogen with dietary carbohydrates
  • protein intake for growth and repair of tissue, particularly skeletal muscle
  • hydration
  • overall diet to maintain good health

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If you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

 

Reference:

  1. NHMRC Nutrient reference values for Australia & New Zealand. Including recommended dietary intakes. (2005). National Health and Medical Research Council: Australia, & Ministry of Health:NZ.
  2. Dunford, M. & Doyle, J.A. (2015) Nutrition for sport and exercise. (3rd edition) Stamford, CT: Cengage.
  3. Cordain L, & Friel J. (2012). The Paleo Diet for Athletes: The Ancient Nutritional Formula for Peak Athletic Performance. 2nd Ed, Rodale Inc, New York.

Do MY FOOD CHOICES affect anyone else?

The reason I named my facebook page Our Food Karma is because I wanted to highlight the idea that we are all in it together and our own food choices have a massive influence on the food choices of others and I’ll explain why…!

Family influences:

If you have one parent who is obese you have a 50% chance of becoming obese as an adult and if both your parents are obese then your obesity risk goes up to 80%! I argue that the risk is more down to nurture rather than nature! Our diets in adulthood are largely influenced on what food we were given as a child. Although easily mistaken, love is not providing sugary foods to settle children. If you are overweight as a child you are likely going to be overweight as an adult, unless you change your diet dramatically later on in life.

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Parents/caregivers who eat unhealthily will undoubtedly impart at least some of these unhealthy eating behaviours to their children. Also your diet prior to and during pregnancy along with your weight can have long lasting effects on your child’s health even in adulthood!! Women who enter into pregnancy overweight increase their own risk of developing gestational diabetes and increase the likelihood of their child developing type 2 diabetes later in life!

So in order to ensure your kids are healthy and less likely to become overweight, develop type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease as adults it is worth reassessing mealtimes and making nutrition a priority.

Friends:

Whether we realise it or not our food choices affect the food choices of our friends. For example, when you are meeting up with friends and someone suggests a dessert, do you say

  1. “yes, that’s a great idea, I was eyeing up the chocolate éclair” OR
  2. “I’m good, the dinner was enough for me!”

When  you visit friends do you bring cakes and biscuits or do you bring a healthy dip? When you go to the cinema do you convince your friend to get popcorn and chocolate too so you can feel better about treating yourself? Do you bring sweets for your friend’s children or instead buy them a colouring book, bracelet, or DVD? What I’m discussing here is what you do most of time; sometimes you might bring ice-cream to cheer yourself or a friend up, or maybe you have that dessert just because you feel like it, or maybe you do bring sweets over for a friend’s child but as long as your habit (what you do around 80% of the time) has a positive impact overall then you will be doing okay! Our friends are often the most influential people in our life! It pays to be around healthy friends..!!

Housemates:

Every house I’ve lived in (and I’ve lived in a lot), I’ve learnt or picked up some cooking tips from a housemate. You notice what your housemates buy in their grocery shopping and you see and smell the end results. This affects you whether you know it or not! However, when your housemate prefers to order a pizza then this can make you a bit more relaxed and perhaps not as stringent with your home cooking (…but at least there’s no one taking over the cooker!). If we look at things the other way round your housemate may start to become curious about your food and perhaps may start to buy some of those “strange” vegetables you get each week!

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Grocery shopping:

The food industry and supermarkets are to blame for all the cheap and easily available unhealthy food. There is enticement and temptation everywhere, as their sole objective is to make money! However, it is ultimately us who swipes our bank cards and pays for our own food shopping. If we did not continue to purchase all those sugary drinks, biscuits, cakes, pastries, and chocolate then there would no longer be a demand for them and suppliers would stock more healthy food (but only if there is a demand!).

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This is a photo taken by my friend Elize when she was in Amsterdam. Sometimes a photo can describe a thousand words!! Very ironic!

Eating out:

Similar to grocery shopping above, if we make the individual choice to stop buying takeaways and instead eat at healthy restaurants then the demand for these fast food chains will go down! Fast food restaurants located near schools or near residential areas is associated with an increase in obesity! We can also do our bit at restaurants. Portion sizes in restaurants are often a lot bigger than what you would normally eat at home. There is often the dilemma of not wanting to waste food and to get value for your money. Although you may feel awkward asking the following questions, my advice is to not care as most restaurants are a business and are there for profit but if people keep asking then they will gradually change their menus/options! The following questions can be helpful in making sure you follow a healthy diet while eating out:

  • Are there half portions available?
  • Can I have the dressing on the side?
  • What exactly is in the salad? I find salads can be hit and miss. You can get amazing, tasty and filling salads and on the other hand you can get miserable, tasteless and unfilling salads, and then you wish you ordered those chips that someone else has (and you may even treat yourself to a dessert to feel better after this mishap!).
  • Can I have a larger portion of vegetables instead of the baguette/bread/chips? Or a side salad with the soup instead of white bread (which is commonly provided)?
  • Ask to have what you’re not eating put into a takeaway container. This prevents you from continuing to graze and it means you have another meal/snack for later (sustainability!).

Conclusion

We live in a world that is becoming more and more aware of the link between nutrition and health but unfortunately our awareness is not having enough action. Although it may seem like we can only play a small part; if everyone made one small change to their diet every week we would have a healthy and happy population in no time!

If you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

A diet that can treat Autism, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Depression and Schizophrenia?

I am currently researching diet strategies used in the management of different gut issues. This has come about because I have been asked to present at the NZ Society of Naturopaths and Naturopaths of NZ combined annual conference in Auckland in September. My presentation title is “Demystifying diets for functional gut problems” so here I am reviewing diets relating to gut problems!

Recently I wrote a blog on low FODMAPs diet for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Low FODMAP foods for IBS. In this blog I am going to focus on the Gut and Psychology Syndromes (GAPS) diet which claims to provide a natural treatment for Autism, ADHD, Dyslexia, Depression, and Schizophrenia.

What is GAPS?

Gut and Psychology Syndromes (GAPS) is a condition that is based on the connection between the function of the digestive system and the brain. It was coined by Dr Natasha Campbell-McBride in 2004 after her own child was diagnosed with learning difficulties. She believes “all diseases begin in the gut” and that the state of the digestive system links all the above mentioned conditions. She also believes that conditions such as asthma, eczema, allergies, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder can be vastly improved by following the GAPS diet.1

Healthy gut bacteria provide a physical barrier along the length of our intestines. These bacteria protect us from dangerous bacteria (pathogenic bacteria), viruses and fungi. They neutralise toxins, modify the immune system, ferment carbohydrates, produce vitamin K and B vitamins and even provide energy to the cells that line the intestines.1

If beneficial bacteria are weakened then the gut wall is considered open to invasion by various bacteria, parasites and yeast (Candida albicans). This can lead to chronic gut inflammation and malnourished intestinal cells. Intestinal cells are no longer able to function effectively and this results in impaired digestion and absorption “leaky gut”.1

In her book “Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia” Dr Campbell-McBride claims that once the intestinal lining is damaged, wheat and milk proteins are unable to be broken down by enzymes lining the gut wall and instead are absorbed intact. She explains that these proteins; gluteomorphines (wheat proteins) and casomorphines (milk proteins) can interfere with brain and immune system function.1

She also claims that abnormal gut flora can produce neurotoxins and cause the body to produce antibodies against its own cells in the brain and spinal cord.1 She explains that Candida albicans use glucose to form ethanol and acetaldehyde and that Candida overgrowth during pregnancy can affect child development (as the foetus accumulates toxins), and the infant then produces alcohol in their own gut. Dr Campbell-McBride links aldehyde production in the gut with altered myelin structure, which manifests as multiple sclerosis. She thinks this aldehyde production may be a cause of the neurologic picture of autistic and dyspraxic children. Aldehyde production binds to vitamin B6, preventing its use as a co-factor for neurotransmitters and fatty acid metabolism. She claims that mothers of GAPS children always have gut dysbiosis (imbalance).1

Diet and GAPS

Dr Campbell-McBride claims that sugar and processed carbohydrates increase Candida, Staphylococci, Streptococci, Clostridia and Bacteroids, and predisposes an individual to worms and parasites. She also claims that a high amount of grain intake predisposes individuals to IBS and bowel cancer. She even states that there were no cases of schizophrenia or coeliac disease documented in Ireland until post potato famine when grains became an integral part of the Irish diet! She explains in her book that diet plus other factors such as antibiotic use, surgery, chemotherapy, stress, pollution and oral contraceptive pills have a collective negative effective on beneficial bacteria.1

What does the GAPS diet entail?

The GAPS diet eliminates all complex carbohydrates and only allows smaller sized carbohydrates called monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) in the diet as these are relatively easy to absorb.  This means avoidance of all grains (wheat, millet, spelt, quinoa, and cous-cous etc), starchy vegetables and beans (potatoes, yams, parsnip, soybeans, mungbeans, bean sprouts, chick peas, and fava beans). All fresh fruit, honey and non-starchy vegetables (Table 1) are allowed. Homemade fermented yoghurt is allowed as the fermentation process breaks the carbohydrates into small sugars and the proteins into amino acids that can then be easily absorbed.1

 Table 1: Non starchy fresh veg and beans/ lentils allowed in the GAPS diettable 1 gaps diet

The GAPS diet involves the avoidance of proteins in wheat and dairy but allows easy to digest unprocessed proteins such as eggs, fish, and meat. There is an emphasis on liver, meat, bone and fish stock. She recommends avoidance of lean meats because she believes that we can only use meat fibers when they come with fat, collagen and other substances. She recommends eating meat that has a good covering of fat and to eat the skin of poultry and fish.1

Shelled/freshly shelled nuts and seeds are allowed but they should not be roasted, salted, coated or processed in any way. Seeds can be soaked in salty water for 12 hours to improve their digestibility. Fats are tolerated as they are not dependent on brush border enzymes (enzymes on the gut wall that help digest food). She recommends ghee made from organic butter, cold pressed oils and no processed oils.1

The GAPS diet starts off with an introduction diet which can last from a few weeks to a year, depending on the individual. This stage allows for gut healing and recovering. There are six stages and Table 2 includes some aspects of each stage.

 Table 2: Six stages of the Introduction dietTable 2 gaps diet

After the introduction diet is completed the full GAPS diet then should be followed for 2 years. The full gaps diet includes 85% meat, eggs, fish eggs, fermented dairy and vegetables. There needs to be 6 months normal digestion before including non-GAPS foods.

Is there evidence to support this diet?

There are no studies or published papers on the GAPS diet. Dr Campbell-McBride makes a lot of sweeping statements (she has never met a healthy vegetarian!) and even advises against vaccination in infants born to mothers with fibromyalgia, digestive problems, asthma, eczema, severe allergies, and autoimmune disorders because she claims that viruses from vaccines may survive and persist in GAPS individuals.1  

However it is recognised that 70% of our immune system is localised in the intestines (gut associated lymphoid tissue) and that gut microbiota can alter brain function.2  We know that poor diets can negatively alter bacteria in the gut, which can then affect our brain and cognitive function. The exact mechanism is still unknown but it may be via regulating immunity or hormonal and neural messages.2

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Many gastrointestinal diseases are associated with neurological affects e.g. migraines/headaches, brain fog, fatique and fainting. Untreated coeliac disease is associated with autistic and psychotic behaviours and neurological conditions. There is also an association with IBS and depression and anxiety.3

The GAPS diet is a traditional diet in many ways with the use of bone broths as a major part of the diet. When I was growing up there was always meat and vegetables in a saucepan together left on the stove which cooked for hours at low heat. This low heat cooking helped liberate nutrients from the bones. This is something I no longer practice but I have started keeping the bones from my roast chicken and lamb dinners to make soups and stews!

I think personally, because I truly believe nutrition can have profound effects on health that I would give this diet a try if I had a GAPS condition. However, I think the diet itself may be challenging, particularly because you need to be able to ferment all your own dairy products and some vegetables. I fermented cabbage before (saukerkraut) but I have not fermented my own dairy products; although I hear it is relatively simple and many people make their own kefir (fermented yoghurt). Fermenting food was not a major tradition in Ireland; apart from breads but bacteria/yeast are killed by the heat. Mead, the oldest alcoholic drink was made from fermented honey, water, herbs and spices! You would also need to get used of making your own breads with nut flours as otherwise it becomes quite expensive buying these breads. It may be extremely challenging for a parent to introduce these foods to a child with learning disabilities and it would require a lot of patience and perseverance. Likewise someone with a mental health condition may not feel motivated to make these changes and they would require a lot of support, and even with support unless they understand the value and are on board with the diet then compliance may be low.

Conclusion

Dr Campbell-McBride often uses indirect evidence as ways to give plausible explanations to her yet to be proven theories. I say yet because a lot of what she is saying may be true and in the future her diet may be recognised as a dietary management option for those suffering from learning disabilities and psychological disturbances. I also wonder if there could be some benefit of including some aspects of the GAPS diet (so it not as extreme) over the long-term e.g. reducing fermentable carbohydrates, including more bone broths and adding small amounts of fermented vegetable into the diet?

I hope you found this useful, if you would like to read more of my nutrition blogs then please like my facebook page Our Food Karma. For more regular updates and interaction please add me on snapchat with username: sharuuu000 and instagram as ourfoodkarma

References

  1. Campbell-McBride, N. Gut and Psychology Syndrome: Natural Treatment for Autism, ADD/ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyspraxia, Depression, Schizophrenia. 2015, (2nd edition) United Kingdom: Medinform Publishing.
  2. Holzer, P., Farz, A. Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-gut-brain-axis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 817:195-219
  3. De Magistris L, Siniscalco D, Bully C, Loguercio C. Gut-brain axis. A new revolution to understand the pathogenesis of autism and other severe neurological diseases. In Human Nutrition from the gastronenterologists perspective, 2016, pp49-65. E. Grossi, F. Pace (eds) Springer International Publishing Switzerland. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-30361-1